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152 Cards in this Set

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Stages of Development
Pre Alphabetic
Pre K - K
Beginning awareness that test progresses from L to R. Recognize visual clues in print such as letters of name.
Stages of Development
Early Alphabetic
K - 1
Letters associated with sounds. Begin to read simple CVC words (mat, pin). Represents such words with a single sound. Will later spell with first and last consonant. CT for cat
Stages of Development
Middle and Late Alphabetic
when writing vowels included in each syllable. begin to recognize chunks or phonograms.
Stages of Development
2 -3
read larger units of print and use analogy to decode larger words. decoding becomes fluent. accuracy and speed when reading are stressed.
Alphabetic Principle
in English, written words are made up of letters that match the sounds we hear when we speak these words. Written and oral language correspond.
Combining letter sounds in order to pronounce a word. Sounding out.
Concepts of Print
left to right. top to bottom. use of spaces between words. where a book begins and ends. predictor of reading success.
Cueing System
source of info that aids in decoding such as phonics, structural analysis, and semantic syntactical info.
Two letters that make on speech sound. th, sh
new vowel sound produced from 2 vowels in the same syllable.
oy in boy or uy in buy
written/printed representation of a phoneme
unit of meaning in language that cant be divided into smaller elements such as the work book. phonemes are combined to form morphemes to make up whole words such as toy, lamp or meaninful parts of words such as prefixes (pro, sub) and suffixes (able, ness)
smallest unit sound of speech (as the b in book or the t in took) that can change the meaning of the word. first sound an infant makes. they are single vowel and consonant sounds. about 45 in english language. examples are /oo/, /ee/, /ou/, /sh/
Phonemic Awareness
understanding that phonemes or sounds make up spoken words. includes ability to blend, segment, and manipulate phonems in spoken words. auditory skill does not involve use of print.
strategy to teach reading and spelling that involves relationship between sound and written symbols. study and use of sound/spelling correspondences to identify written words.
analysis and study of meanings of words, phrases, and sentences. useful strategy in decoding to analyze the word that sounds correct in a sentence. rules that govern what the meaning of language communicates (vocab). how meaning is related to the surface structure of language. a learned condition.
examination of various ways that words combine to create meaning, study of how sentences are formed, and the pattern or structure of word order in sentences. grammar rules that govern how words are formed within a sentence. combines morphemes into meaninful sentences. syntax seems to develop from an innate sense of grammar.
Reading Assessments
Alphabet Knowledge
identify letters, form letters
Reading Assessment
Concepts about print
test important concepts about books including front/back of book, print tells the story, concept of letters, words, sentences, and that spaces have a purpose.
Reading Assessment
Phonemic Awareness
Estimates level of phonemic awareness in students.
Reading Assessment
Phonics Test
tests phonics skills necessary in reading
Reading Assessment
High Frequency Word Recognition
Meaures word recognition out of context. proficient readers can read words in and out of context. poor readers over rely on context for decoding. assists teachers in determining level to start testing in Oral Reading Inventories.
Reading Assessment
Oral Reading Inventories
Graded passages that give an indication of the fluency with which a student is able to read. Evaluated is accuracy, reading rate, reading level, and comprehension leve.
Reading Assessment
Spelling Inventory
through examination of words spelled correctly and incorrectly, students skills can be classified into different developmental spelling stages. skills are examined that directly tie to reading. assists in planning spelling and reading instruction.
Reading Assessments
Alphabet Knowledge
Concepts about print
phonemic awareness
phonics test
high frequency word recognition
oral reading inventories
spelling inventory
Language Development
early vocalizations are spontaneous, cooing (vowels) or crying. then babbling sounds (phonemes) begin with sounds morel ike patterned speech with consonant vowel strings (dadada)
Language Development
first words spoken. usually familiar objects or people. simple monosyllabic words such as momma or byebye
Language Development
18-24 mos
first sentences (2 words) spoken. understand grammatical relationships but cant yet express. use articles (the, a) prepositions (on, in), conjunctions (and, but), and verb to be(am, are, is). word errors include underextending
Language Development
Early Childhood
learns 8-9words each day. average vocab of 1000 words. talk about things not present. uses plural and possessive forms of nouns. adds ing to verbs. knows that more than one adj can apply to smae noun. starts private speech.
Language Development
many why ? can understand metaphors. use 4-5 word declarative sentences ( i am not sleepy), interrogative (why cant i go), imperative ( turn off the tv). understands syntax. uses conjuntions, prepositions, and articles regularly. errors in overregularizations transitive or intransitive verbs (she singed a song). 6yrs avg vocab is 2500 but speaks about 8000 to 14000. speech is more adult like.
rules for conversation. how children speak in different social contexts.
Understanding Morphological Rules
In a classic experiment by Jane Berko, she presented first grade children with cards showing a fictional figure and asking them to fill in the missing words. All children responded by adding the plural form of the noun correctly. They successfully relied on morphological rules rather than remembering a past experience.
Grammatical Rules That Regulate Language
Understanding Morphological Rules
Child Directed Speech (CDS) or motherese
Adults modify their speech to make it easier for children to learn language including sentence structure, repeating key words, and focusing on present objects. First words are spoken by 12 mos and are usually familiar with objects or persons. first sentences spoken by 18 to 24 mos and are usually 2 words (telegraphic speech).
Fast Mapping
A process whereby young children are able to use context to arrive at a quick guess of a words meaning. Nouns (objects) are easier to fast map then verbs (action).
infants and childrens repeat sounds that are reinforced. children can distinguish abstract rules for sentence structure.
single word that expresses a complete thought. symbolic gestures - child shows understanding that symbols (words) represent a specific object, desire, or event. blowing on food to mean hot. Representational gestures - gesturing to show what an infant desires. holding us a bottle to show infant wants more to drink.
In early childhood, children begin to use past tenses and plurals in speech. also begin to add regular forms on irregular nouns. saying foots instead of feet.
Private Speech
talking out loud to oneself with no intention to communicate with others. helps children to integrate language and thought.
Telegraphic Speech
Simplified speech or an early form of speech. Usually a two word sentence spoken by a two year old. first sentences consists of just enough words to get the meaning across.
Early word errors. when a child names dog daisy an sees another dog and moms says look at daisy and child says no. child underextends words restricting to just her dog or a single object.
early words errors that occur when a toddler overextends words meaning. child knows what tv looks like then sees a computer screen and calls it a tv.
Modifier, gives additional info about nouns.
Modifier, gives additional info about verbs.
sentence clarity suffers if two objects being compared are not alike. the words as and than are often part of the structure of comparison sentences. a clear and correct sentence may employ as ... as a phrase or as . .as . than phrase but never an as than phrase

correct: kurt is as talented as the other musicians

correct: kurt is as talented as but not more talented than the other musicians.

incorrect: kurt is as talented than other musicians.
Dangling Modifiers
modifier dangles when it does not clearly or logically refer to the statement immediately following it. introductory phrase that does not clearly or logically refer to the subject in a sentence.

ie: strolling along the beach, a wave suddenly drenched us. seems that a wave is strolling.

correct: while we were strolling along the beach, a wave suddenly drenched us.
Double Negatives
occurs when one negative words or phrase is used along with another.

fred could not hardly remember when he had enjoyed himself so pmuch.

correct expression only requires one negative.
either or and neither nor
when comparing to items you can use either with or or neither with nor but remember never to use nor without neither.
Fewer and Less
when describing countable items use fewer. when describing uncountable items use less.
Sentence Fragements
sentence that is incomplete, where crucial information is missing.
certain expressions sound right because they are so commonly used. correct simply because widely excepted.

on the whole, obedient to, forbid to, angry with, capable of
Many and Much
follow same rules as fewer and less

many with countable items
much with uncountable items
Misplaced Modifiers
placed to closely a word that it should not modify.

incorrect: camille prepared a roast for the family that was served burned.

correct. Camille served a burned roast to the family.
phrases in a sentence are parralel when they have the same grammatic structure.

ie: to stay happy, keep fit, and to prosper
staying happy, keeping, fit, prospering
happiness, fitness, prosperity

can mix structures
Personal Pronouns
used in place of the subject in a sentence. subject is the doer.

first person: i, we
second: you
third he she it, they
Personal Pronouns
in place of the object in the sentence. object is the receiver

first: me, us
second: you
third: him her it, them
Personal Pronouns
first: my mine, our ours
second: your yours
third: his her hers its, their theirs
Relative Pronouns
replace subject which is a doer.
who - persons
which - things
that - things and persons
Relative Pronouns
replace object which is a receiver.

whom, which, that
Relative Pronouns
separates equal elements of equal power of meaning: tow or more words, phrases or sentences. never separatate a main clause from a subordinate clause or word or phrase from a clause.
use a semicolon to separate main clauses when not done by a coordinating conjuntion.
ie: ask joe for the book; he still has it.
use a semicolon to separate main clauses joined by coordinating conjunction where there are commas in any of the clauses.
ie: although it is dark, we should start now; for we must finish on time.
use a semicolon to separate main clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb (therefore, however, moreover, nevertheless
ie: we didn't have much time; nevertheless, we felt we should begin
use a semicolon to separate items in a series when there are commas within the items
ie: nora's dress was red, blue, and green; Lucy's dress was lilac and white; and Helen's dress was black, turquoise, and white.
formal introducer. translated to mean as follows. employed sparingly and never after is, are, was, or were when presenting a series. major use is to introduce a formal appositive, list, summary, quotation, example, or other explanatory material whether or not the words as follows or the following are used.

The following attended (or Those who attended are as follows): Bob, Mary, Jack, and Sue.

Patrick Henry's words were rallying cry of the revolt: "Give me liberty or give me death."
Squinting Modifiers
ambiguous modifier. modifier that could equally modify either of the two words or phrases.

ie: executive entering the office hurriedly made the decision.

correct: entering the office, the executive hurriedly made the decision.
Subject Verb Agreement
a plural subject goes with a plural verb; a singular subject goes with a singular verb. harder when a sentence begins with here or there. when this happens the subject follows the verb.
Verb Tense
for regular verbs add ed to talk about past and will or shall to talk about future.
Past Participle
add have

I have talked, I have helped
Analyzing Poetry
What is the dramatic situation?
What is the structure of the poem?
What is the theme?
Are the grammar and meaning clear?
What are the important images and figures of speech?
What is the tone?
What literary devices does the poem employ?
What isthe prosody of the poem?
What is the dramatic situation?
who is the speaker or who are the speakers? male/female? where are they? when does it take place? what are the circumstances?
What is the structure of the poem?
what are the parts and how are they related to each other? what gives the poem coherence? what are the structural divisions?
look at the punctuation. complete sentences indicated by periods, semicolons, question marks, or exclamation points. how does it get from sentence to sentence? parralel repetions or use of a similie in each sentence? think about poem's logic. does it ask questions if so answer them. does it develop an argument?? does it use a series of analogies to prove a point?
What is the theme of the poem?
is it complex? what is the meaning? define what the poem says and why.
Are the grammar and meaning clear?
understand the meaning and the grammar
What are the important images and figures of speech?
important literal sensory objects. similies and metaphors. what is compared to what? is there a pattern in the images? discriminate between figurative and literal.
What is the tone?
mood, atmosphere. manner of speaking, tone of voice. infered attitude of author.
What literary devices does the poem employ?
metaphor, similie, personification
What is the prosody of the poem?
basics about rhyme, meter, and sound effects of poetry
Analyze prose
fiction or nonfiction

fiction: think about characters

nonfiction: issue, idea, or narrator
who is speaking and what are their attitudes towards the characters/subject.
who is speaking, where, why, when, and to whom?
what is the purpose of the passage? to present an argument to introduce a character? cajole, entertain, stir action.
sentence and paragraph. see how each part advances
diction, imagery, figurative language, syntax. raise questions about the rhetoric of the passage. use of words to sway or influence a reader.
story in which people, things, and events have another meaning
reference in a work to something outside the work, especially to a well known historical or literary event, person, or work.
multiple meanings a literary work may communicate, especially two meanings that are incompatible.
direct address, usually to someone or something that is not present
speaker's, author's, or character's disposition toward or opinion of a subject.
an author's account of his or her own life.
an accurate history of a single person
highest point of interest in a novel, short story, play. where action reaches a turning point, where the rising action (complication of the plot) ends and the following action (resolution of the plot) begins.
dramatic form intended to amuse the audience. moves from unhappy situation to a happy resolution.
implications of a word or phrase as opposed to its exact meaning (denotation)
device of style or subject matter so often used that it becomes a recognized means of expression
dictionary meaning of a word
word choice. details

words that are important to the meaning and effect the work
explicity intrusive
use of material unrelated to the subject of a work
a pithy saying, often using contrast. also verse form usually brief and pointed.
figure of speech using indirection to avoid offensive bluntness such as deceased for dead.
Figurative Language
writing that uses figures of speech such as metaphor, similie, and irony. uses words to mean something other than their literal meaning.
a literary form such as essay, novel or poem. within genres like the poem there are also more specific genres bases on content such as love, nature or based on form such as sonnet, ode
characterized by distortions or incongruities.
deliberate exaggeration, overstatement. is self concious without intention of being accepted literally.
sensory details of a work. the figurative language of a work. visual, auditory, or tactile images evoked
a figure of speech in which intent and actualy meaning differ, characteristically praise for blame or blame for praise. discrepancy.
special language of a profession or group. evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders.
not figurative. accurate to the letter, matter of fact, concrete
comparison is expressed without the use of a term like as, like, or than. ie the black bat night
Narrative Techniques
methods involved in telling a story. discuss the procedures used in the telling of a story. ie: point of view, manipulation of time, dialogue, interior monologue.
fictional narrative of prose of considerable length. shorter works are called novella and even shorter ones are called short stories.
Omniscient Point of View
vantage point of a story in which the narraror can know, see, and report whatever he or she chooses. narator is free to describe the thoughts of any of the characters, to skip about in time or place, or to speak directly to the reader.
combination of opposites. the union of contradictory terms.
story designed to suggest a principle, illustrate a moral, or answer a question. allegorical stories.
sttement that seems to be self contradicting but in fact is true.
a composition that imitates the style of another composition normally for comic effect
endows nonhuman (ideas, inanimate objects, animals, abstractions) with human characteristics
interelated actions of a play or novel which move to a climax and final resolution
Point of View
any of several possible vantage points from which a story is told. may be omniscient, limited to that of a single character, or limited to that of several characters, as well as other possibilites. the teller may use the first and or third person
Rhetorical Question
a question asked for effect, not in expectation of a reply.
Rhetorical Techniques
devices used in effective or persuasive language. contrast, repetitions, paradox, understatement, sarcasm, and rhetorical questions
writing that seeks to arouse a reader's disaproval of an object by ridicule. usually a comedy that exposes errors with an eye to correcting vice and folly.
background to a story. physical location of a play, story, or novel. the setting of a narrative will normally involve both time and place.
a comparison using like, as, or than
speech in which a character who is alone speaks his or her thoughts out loud.
single speaker but a monologue speaks to others who do not interupt
Strategy (rhetorical strategy)
mangagement of language for specific effect. planned placing of elements to acheive an effect.
arrangement of materials within a work. the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole. the logical divisions of a work. most common principles of structure are series (ABCDE), contrast (A vs B, C vs D), and repetition (AA, BB, AB). most common units of structure are play (scene, act), novel (chapter), and poem (line, stanza).
mode of expression of language. the characteristic manner of expression of an author. diction, syntax, figurative language, imagery, selection of detail, sound effects, tone
form of reasoningin which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them. begins with a major premise followed by a minor premise. ie: all tragedies end unhappily. Hamlet is a tragedy. Therefore, Hamlet ends unhappily.
something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else.
winter, dark, cold can be symbols for death
main though expressed by a work
theme, meaning, or position that a writer undertakes to prove or support.
manner in which an author expresses his/her attitude. intonation of voice that expresses meaning. result of allusion, diction, figurative language, imagery, irony, symbol, syntax, and style
play with a serious content and unhappy ending.
Phonemic Blending
skill students should possess by age six or first grade. teacher's need to assess phonemic awareness of students to find areas of weakness and emphasize areas students lack. blending is an important prereq to reading and students need practice and explicit instruction in this skill.
Focusing on roots to help understand the meaning of a word is based on?
many words and roots come from languages that are historically related to English and have similar spellings and meanings in English.
Before a teacher prepares a lesson in reading for a diverse class she shoudl?
prepare a portfolio for each child with strategies for individual instructional needs. provide reading materials to meet the reading level of all students. must prepare the portfolios to diagnose each students needs.
teacher has tried all strategies to help student with reading who is in lowest reading group not making progress what is next step?
assess reading level and target instruction to meet identified skill needs. keep records on behavior and communicate with parents to gain assistance.
narrative poem that tells a story and is written to be sung
Dramtic monologue the speaker is?
speaking to a second person who does not reply
Free Verse
not rhymed does not have a regular metrical pattern
poem having 14 lines usually in iambic pentameter and a formal arrangement of rhymes
no break in continuity of print
why does language communication become easier am more precise as child develops?
as children get older experience many different people, items, and situations. become more aware of similarities and differences. since communication depends on similar or complimentary experiences, as children age and have more experiences they have a larger base to work with.
identify and discuss three factors that inhibit language acquisition during early to middle childhood.
1. mental growth - as children grow mentally they expand their ability to retain info. if mental growth is slowed words could become more difficult to learn and memorize.
2. emotional growth - as children come in touch with expressing their feelings, their language base usually expands. if child has inhibitions or emotional problems could slow need or will to acquire language.
3. social growth - as children learn to interact with others, additional language becomes necessary. if social growth is slowed and there is less interest or exchange language growth may be inhibited.
teacher notes when student reads orally continually omits silent e. for example says hat for hate, tap for tape, and cop for cope. how do you help?
teacher needs to call to the students attention to whether what they are reading makes sense. do more explicit vowel instruction. student also needs explicit instruction recognizing word patterns especially those ending with silent e. student would benefit from focused feedback and effective instruction in the role of silent e words. Activities could include focused attention to final, word sorting, and exposure to print that includes words of this type. the student must also focus on similarities and differences of words. word instruction using word sorting games and simple word games could be beneficial.
standard american english is a dynamic language that is constantly changing. why?
due to modern technology, infusion of foreign language, and inclusion of slang expressions. there is a necessity for new words to go with modern technology. as we invent/discover new items and processes, new names must be created to describe them. for example taser describes a self defense mechanism. infusion of words from foreign languages; as words become more used frequently they become part of our vocab. for example the word valet comes from the french. inclusion of words that were once considered slang expression give new meanings to words. for example chill out does not mean to become cold but to become calm.
the same word can have many meanings. explain how and give four examples.
words have different meanings depending on the context in which they are used. for example hand can mean a part of the body or five playing cards in poker. the word tree can mean a large plant or a diagrams as in family tree. the word run can mean to move quickly or a tear in a pair of stockings. the word fan can mean a device to help cool you down or a person at a sports event.
techniques author may use to make a short story more interesting.
figurative language, multiple points of view, flashback, foreshadowing

flashback a technique in which the narrative moves to a time prior of the main story. can make short story more interesting by giving it depth. the author can reveal why characters are what they are and behave as they do by showing details of their earlier life.

foreshadowing uses clues to suggest events that have not yet occured. it is often used to create suspense and thus makes the story more interesting. allows the author to link seemingly minor details to an important event developed later in the story.