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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the Endocrine System?
Regulates internal environment of the body.
the link between the Nervous System & the Endocrine System is
the hypothalamus
negative feedback
is the mechanism by which the endocrine system operates.
Increase in the target hormones in the bloodstream causes
decrease secretion of the releasing factors from the hypothalamus as well as decreased secretion from the anterior pituitary and then decreased secretion from the target gland.
What is Aldosterone responsible for?

T3 and T4 regulates metabolism of CHO, proteins, fats; regulates body heat production; glucose use by cells; affects cardiac output, HR and BP

Calcitonin regulates calcium and phosphorus balance (inhibits parathormone). This is released when calcium increases and it will inhibit bone reabsorption and decrease calcium absorption in intestine

Parathormone stimulates calcium absorption in GI tract. It is regulated by calcium balance in body. Decreased calcium causes increased release and increased calcium causes shut off.
stimulates Na and Cl reabsorption in kidney and K release. (aldosterone is regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system).
What is Cortisol responsible for?
regulates blood glucose by stimulating gluconeogensis, decreases protein anabolism and promotes fat storage, and affects the inflammatory response of body
What does Parathormone stimulate?
Parathormone stimulates calcium absorption in GI tract. It is regulated by calcium balance in body. Decreased calcium causes increased release and increased calcium causes shut off.
Growth hormone (somatotropin) is responsible for:

Endocrine Disorders include:
—bone & muscle growth, body metabolism

Acromegaly & Dwarfism
Hormones secreted by the Adrenal cortex
Aldosterone (mineralcorticoid) & Cortisol (glucorticoid)
Hormones secreted by the Thyroid
Calcitonin & Phosperous balance
T3 & T4
Hormones secreted by the Parathyroid
PTH (parathormone)
How does negative feedback system work?
the main mechanism for controlling blood levels of hormones. In a negative feedback system, plasma levels of one type of hormone influence the level of other types of hormones.
An example of negative feedback is:
An increase in the anterior pituitary release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the maturation and release of the ovum (egg) into the oviduct.
Mature follicular cells secrete estrogen, and the corpus luteum secretes progesterone.
Once estrogen levels reach a certain plasma peak, feedback into the anterior pituitary inhibits further secretion of FSH. Estrogen also inhibits the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH) from the hypothalamus.
Negative feedback loops are extremely important in maintaining hormones within physiologic ranges.
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Each kidney has an adrenal gland located above it.
The adrenal gland is divided into
an inner medulla and an outer cortex.
The medulla synthesizes
amine hormones
the cortex secretes
steroid hormones. mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones.
The adrenal medulla consists of modified neurons that secrete two hormones:
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Mineralocorticoids maintain
electrolyte balance.
Glucocorticoids produce
a long-term, slow response to stress by raising blood glucose levels through the breakdown of fats and proteins; they also suppress the immune response and inhibit the inflammatory response.
Stimulation of the cortex by the sympathetic nervous system causes
release of hormones into the blood to initiate the "fight or flight" response.
Where is the thyroid located?
The thyroid gland is located in the neck.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary causes
conversion of thyroglobulin into thyroid hormones T4 and T3.
Thyroid hormone increases ;
the overall metabolic rate, regulates growth & development as well as the onset of sexual maturity.
Calcitonin is also secreted
by large cells in the thyroid, it plays a role in regulation of calcium.
pituitary gland
A small gland located at the base of the brain; consists of an anterior and a posterior lobe and produces numerous hormones. The master gland of the endocrine system, the pituitary releases hormones that have specific targets as well as those that stimulate other glands to secrete hormones. Part of the pituitary is nerve tissue, the rest is glandular epithelium.
endocrine system
One of eleven major body organ systems in animals; a system of glands that works with the nervous system in controlling the activity of internal organs, especially the kidneys, and in coordinating the long-range response to external stimuli.
A hormone produced by the thyroid that plays a role in regulating calcium levels.
A client complains of tingling & numbness in the toes & fingers. What would you think is the problem?
Decreased calcium
what is thyroid crisis?
usually occurs in patients with poorly controlled or unrecognized hyperthyroidism, Exacerbation of features of hyperthyroidism
- hyperpyrexia. May be extreme (>41oC) and is generally considered essential to diagnosis. Skin usually moist and warm
- confusion, fits, coma, muscle weakness. Very common. Features of UMN lesions have been described as has rhabdomyolysis and sudden onset of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
- arrhythmias, cardiac failure. Decreasing pulse rate and BP with the development of shock are associated with poor prognosis
- vomiting, diarrhoea. Occasionally jaundice: associated with poor prognosis
- hypercalaemia relatively common (15%) but rarely a problem in itself
- rarely apathetic hyperthyroidism (usually elderly patients) may present in crisis with features of profound exhaustion, tachycardia, hyporeflexia, severe myopathy, marked weight loss and hypotension